Learning ScienceCognitive Psychology

Interleaving

Exposure to related concepts is interleaved rather than blocked to enable robust encoding and better long-term recollection.

Learning ScienceCognitive PsychologyHuman Memory

Spacing

Concepts are revisited repeatedly over time across many sessions and recalled after a longer break to ensure knowledge retention.

Learning ScienceInstructional Design

Scaffolding

Identifying knowledge gaps and delivering supportive instructional scaffolds is critical and educationally consequential.

Learning ScienceCognitive Psychology

Retrieval Practice

Delayed subsequent retrieval practice is more potent for reinforcing retention than immediate practice.

Learning ScienceCognitive Psychology

Mastery Learning

a.k.a. "learning for mastery", students are required to master each concept before moving on to dependent concepts.

Learning ScienceInstructional Design

Personalized System of Instruction

a.k.a. "The Keller Plan", is an enhanced mastery learning strategy to ensure reinforcement throughout the learning process.

Learning ScienceCognitive Psychology

Advanced IRT

Dynamic and multidimensional student knowledge measurement at each bite-sized concept contingent on the performance across the interdependent web of concepts.

PsychometricsInstructional Design

Technology-Enhanced Items

Interactive and rigorous items enable deeper engagement, higher level of thinking and improved measures of student knowledge.